At least twice recently, the question has come up “did the Vikings have cauliflower?”.

The short answer is “probably not”.

The longer answer involves that fact that it turns out to be quite difficult to distinguish between the various members of the cabbage/mustard family (brassicas) in the archeological record.  Most of the archeo-botanical reports from Viking digs include something like “brassicas” rather than a particular species, because we can’t really tell.

The ones they probably had were likely to be an open leafed (not headed) cabbage like modern kale or collards, something like a turnip (the white and purple kind, not rutabagas), and mustard greens of some kind.  Cauliflower, broccoli, and brussel sprouts are later inventions.  Cauliflower in particular didn’t appear in Northern Europe until the 16th C.